陳崇基

陳崇基(Marksir),現居美國芝加哥,曾於以色列作實地考古發掘工作,和聖地多處作過探討,研究興趣是聖經歷史和考古。

加拿大維真神學院 Regent College: 道學碩士;
美國惠頓學院 Wheaton College: 聖經考古學碩士;

每年帶隊到以色列巴勒斯坦作考察或其他交流工作,希望有更多人關心聖經考古和以色列巴勒斯坦。

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創世記創世敘述的近東背景(二)

原刊於聖經考古網站,2014年1月22日

上一篇文章討論聖經創世敘述的近東背景,我說在這方面最常引用的文獻就是《近東開闢史詩》(Enuma Elish),上一回開始簡略史詩內容,講到閼亞(Ea)殺死潝虛(Apsu),為眾神解困,然後生出巴比倫神馬獨克,他是「眾神中最崇高者」(“superior in comparison with the gods”; I.99)。

故事繼續發展,不久之後,徹墨(Tiamat)因夫被殺,晝夜不得安息,有一批神明在金固(Kingu)的帶領之下 ,煽動徹墨(Tiamat)報仇,她生出十一類怪獸和惡魔,向殺夫的眾神大開殺戒,又立金固(Kingu)為伴侶,統領大軍,並賜他“天命之銘”,能掌控宇宙群神:

I.141 彼遂分布毒虺、蛟龍與獅身人、
I.142 巨獅、瘋犬、蝎子人、
I.143 強有力之獅妖、飛龍、半人馬恠物,
I.144 攜其絕不留情之武器,人陣不懼,
I.145 其施令嚴,故彼等之服從性亦高。
I.146 挈同此十一類邁進,

I.141 She created the Hydra, the Dragon, the Hairy Hero,
I.142 The Great Demon, the Savage Dog, and the Scorpion-man,
I.143 Fierce demons, the Fish-man, and the Might Bull,
I.144 Carriers of merciless weapons, fearless in the face of battle.
I.145 Her commands were tremendous, not to be resisted.
I.146 Altogether she made eleven of that kind.

馬獨克(Marduk)畫像
出自公元前九世紀巴比倫1

敵軍快要殺到之前,開頭殺死潝虛(Apsu)為眾神解圍的英雄閼亞(Ea)聞訊,卻慌張起來,告訴祖父安撒(Anshar),安撒(Anshar)首先派出閼亞(Ea)迎敵,但徹墨(Tiamat)太強,閼亞(Ea)不戰而敗。安撒(Anshar)再派出兒子(Anu),與徹墨(Tiamat)講和,但又再失敗,因為邪惡的徹墨(Tiamat)必須要以武力戰勝,不然,眾神必被滅絕。徹墨(Tiamat)勢如破竹,眾神群龍無首,似乎必死無疑。安撒(Anshar)無法可施:

II.119 安撒於是乎俯首無言,
II.120 其髮下垂,搖曳其首,以及閼亞。
II.121 所有居諸天之亞拏娜奇,雲集於此,
II.122 咸緘其口,默坐無聲。
II.123 「果無一神可赴戰陣
II.124 以討徹墨而讓其逃匿乎?」

II.119 Anshar lapsed into silence, staring at the ground,
II.120 Nodding to Ea, shaking his head.
II.121 The Igigi and allt he Anunnaki had assembled,
II.122 They sat in tight-lipped silence.
II.123 No god would go to face .. [..]
II.124 Would go out against Tiamat …. [..]

就在千鈞一髮之際,安撒(Anshar)想起威武的馬獨克(Marduk)是群神的救星,因為他的「威力強大…利於戰陣」(II.127-128)。馬獨克(Marduk)到了天庭,對安撒(Anshar)說:

II.139「安撒!大啟汝口,毋再緘默,
II.140余將往矣,以遂汝心中之所冀求也。

II.143豈有壯士而敢鏖戰與爾為敵者哉?
II.144然僅此徹墨一婦人而已耳,乃能執戈而奔馳向汝乎!?
II.145噫嘻!余父,造物主也,宜乎歡喜愉悅。
II.146徹墨之項,終當為汝所踐踏矣!

II.139 “My father, do not hold your peace, but speak forth,
II.140 I will go and fulfill your desires!

II.143 Which man has drawn up his battle array against you?
II.144 And will Tiamat, who is a woman, attack you with (her) weapons?
II.145 [My father], begetter, rejoice and be glad,
II.146 Soon you will tread on the neck of Tiamat!

不過,馬獨克(Marduk)卻有一要求,若出戰滅絕徹墨(Tiamat)之後,他要求群神召開大會,立他為諸神之首,為統領萬有者。安撒(Anshar)聽後,便派使者去告訴其他大神,馬獨克(Marduk)將為群神解危:

III.55馬獨克,其最聰慧者,亦汝之子也,乃進焉,
III.56蓋其心已促使彼安排一切以對付徹墨。
III.57彼啟其口而告余曰:
III.58『若余誠能為汝之復仇者,
III.59余將制服徹墨以救汝等性命;
III.60且召開大會,以高揭吾命運之大纛。
III.61余當加人欲舒健拿,汝試莞爾坐下,
III.62讓余之昌言,代汝決定此一命運。
III.63不可改易而施行之吾之事功,
III.64此不能徹回、不可更動者是即余之訓令。』

III.55 Marduk, the sage of the gods, your son, has come forward,
III.56 He has determined to meet Tiamat.
III.57 He has spoken to me and said,
III.58 ‘If I should become your avenger,
III.59 If I should bind Tiamat and preserve you,
III.60 Convene an assembly, and proclaim for me an exalted destiny.
III.61 Sit, all of you, in Upsu’kkinakku with gladness.
III.62 And let me, with my utterance, decree destinies instead of you.
III.63 Whatever I instigate must not be changed.
III.64 Nor may my command be nullified or altered.’

群神對馬獨克(Marduk)的戰鬥力毫無疑惑,先前眾神面對徹墨(Tiamat)的威脅,陣腳大亂,驚慌失措,如今有馬獨克(Marduk)解困,立刻設宴慶賀:

III.129-30所有諸大神之命運,已有定數矣;
III.131眾皆趨往安撒之前,集於欲舒健拿內,
III.132相互擁吻,
III.133會談就宴,
III.134歡愉進餐,注酒薦酌,
III.135沾濡舉觴,陶然而醉。
III.136旨酒既酣,狂飲無已,
III.137興致飛越而體倦不能興矣,
III.138惟為彼等之復仇者馬獨克頒布其政令焉。

III.129 All the great gods who decree destinies
III.130 Gathered as they went,
III.131 They entered the presence of Anshar and became filled with [joy],
III.132 They kissed one another as they . [..] in the assembly.
III.133 They conferred as they [sat] at table,
III.134 They ate grain, they drank ale.
III.135 They stuffed their bellies with sweet cake,
III.136 As they drank beer and felt good,
III.137 They became quite carefree, their mood was merry,
III.138 And they decreed the destiny for Marduk, their avenger.

眾神靈立馬獨克(Marduk)為帝,歡喜地同聲向他吶喊:「馬獨克,真乃王者也!…去!去!殄徹墨之命!俾眾風得攫其(徹墨)血,置於不可知之地。」(“Marduk is king …Go, cut off the life of Tiamat, Let the winds bear her blood away as glad tidings!”) (IV.28-32).

接著史詩的描述越來越精彩,為了迎戰徹墨(Tiamat),馬獨克(Marduk)現在準備各種武器:

IV.35彼爰造一弓,以為武器,
IV.36系之於前,張弦以固之。
IV.37彼高舉權杖,以右手緊握之。
IV.38弓與矢橐懸諸其側,
IV.39布閃電於其前,
IV.40激以火焰,充乎其身。
IV.41繼而張一巨網,將羅徹墨於其內,
IV.42復設四風圍繞之,務使其無可遁逃:
IV.43 (四風也者,)南風、北風、東風、西風(是也)。

IV.35 He fashioned a bow and made it his weapon,
IV.36 He set an arrow in place, put the bow string to it,
IV.37 He took up his club and held it in his right hand,
IV.38 His bow and quiver he hung at his side.
IV.39 He placed lightning before him,
IV.40 And filled his body with tongues of flame.
IV.41 He made a net to enmesh the entrails of Tiamat,
IV.42 And stationed the four winds that no part of her escape.
IV.43 The South Wind, the North Wind, the East Wind, the West Wind,

他又發動各種強風,包括:迴旋風、暴風、七方風、旋風與無比之狂風,「為煽動徹墨內部,使其不穩,彼等遂皆起而隨之」。他又「興作洪水滔滔,此尤其有力之武器」(IV.45-49)。馬獨克再套上戰車、穿上戰衣,上戰陣對徹墨(Tiamat)說:

IV.86「起!起!爾我且單獨比鬥,以決一死戰也!」
IV.86 “You and I will take our stand and do battle.”

小結

接著兩神單打獨鬥,情節更為精彩,不過,要等下回分解。在此作一小結,讀到這裡,史詩仍未交代馬獨克(Marduk)創世之事,但是有如其他近東創世神話一樣,創世主要先戰勝混沌大水之威脅,才能建立世界和自己的聖廟,在內安息掌權。所以,馬獨克(Marduk)必須與徹墨(Tiamat)決一死戰,才能成為群神之首。

神與海怪之宇宙大戰的描述,舊約聖經也可尋找到一些蛛絲馬跡(例如:以賽亞書27:1; 51:9-10; 約伯記9:13-14; 26:12-13; 詩篇74:12-17; 89:9-12; 148:7):

以賽亞書51:9-10
9 耶和華的膀臂啊,興起!興起!
以能力為衣穿上,
像古時的年日、上古的世代興起一樣。
從前砍碎拉哈伯(Rahab)、
刺透大魚(dragon)的,不是你嗎?
10 使海與深淵的水乾涸、
使海的深處變為贖民經過之路的,
不是你嗎?

詩篇74:12-17
12 上帝自古以來為我的王,
在地上施行拯救。
13 你曾用能力將海分開,
將水中大魚(sea monsters)的頭打破。
14 你曾砸碎鱷魚(Leviathan)的頭,
把牠給曠野的禽獸為食物。
15 你曾分裂磐石,水便成了溪河;
你使長流的江河乾了。
16 白晝屬你,黑夜也屬你;
亮光和日頭是你所預備的。
17 地的一切疆界是你所立的;
夏天和冬天是你所定的。

這些海怪或怪獸,源自近東神話和宗教,可有不同的名稱或譯名:鱷魚(Leviathan)、拉哈伯(Rahab)、蛇(serpents)、大魚(sea monsters, tannin)等。在這些詩歌的描述中,他們是耶和華神的仇敵,作者利用近東古人熟知的神話,說出耶和華戰神才是得勝者,拯救在於耶和華。例如:

  1. 詩篇87:4和以賽亞書30:7中的拉哈伯(Rahab)代表埃及;
  2. 以西結書29:3; 32:2中的法老,就是大魚(sea monster, tannin);

然而,我們不能從這些經文就下結論說,這些海怪就像近東史詩中的海怪一樣,因為在經文當中,海怪是詩體的比喻,代表著與耶和華或神子民作對的國度和權勢而已2。事實上,舊約聖經沒有賦予這些怪物什麼神性,也沒有在任何地方暗示過這些怪物的抗衡,可挑戰到神的統治權3

再看創世記的創世敘述,神與海怪大戰等描寫,沒有在創世記一二章出現過,創世記的敘述簡潔,絲毫沒有提過神要抵抗海怪才創造萬有,起初混沌之水,不但沒有近東神話中的神性(如巴比倫神話中的徹墨[Tiamat]),也在神的全權掌握之下。神說要有什麼,就有什麼,事就這樣成了,顯明神有絕對主權。

創世記創世敘述的近東背景 系列
  1. 創世記創世敘述的近東背景(一)
  2. 創世記創世敘述的近東背景(二)
  3. 創世記創造敘述的近東背景(三)
  4. 創世記創造敘述的近東背景(四)

備註:

  1. Pritchard, James B., ed. 1973. The Ancient Near East, Volume 1: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures. Princeton University Press, Fig. 141.
  2. Alexander Heidel. 1951. Babylonian Genesis: The Story of the Creation. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, p. 108. Heidel 的書雖然是寫於1951年,但是他對史詩和舊約之間的分析至今仍然有效。
  3. Nahum M. Sarna. 1989. Genesis, The JPS Torah Commentary. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, pp. 2–3.

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